Updated: Apr 9
Global Workplace Analytics is the foremost source of the latest work-at-home/telecommuting/mobile work/remote work statistics. Kate Lister, president of Global Workplace Analytics has been studying workplace trends and consulting with workplace leaders about to optimize their work-from-home initiatives for more than a decade. She is a recognized expert on the prevalence and impact of work-at-home/telework programs. She is the author of several books on the topic including Undress for Success: The Naked Truth About Working From Home and a chapter from the just-released peer-reviewed book edited by John Messenger, Telework in the 21st Century(Edward Elgar, 2019).
Note to Reporters—March 2020:
Kate Lister is happy to share what she knows about:
• Her advice to clients about what they need to be thinking about and doing during and after the COVID-19 crisis
• Traditional drivers of and obstacles to remote work
• The existing and potential impact of work-from-home on employers, employees, and the environment
• What governments need to do to encourage more remote work and why they should do it
Click here for our latest press releases on COVID-19 and work-from-home.
If you are on deadline call 760-703-0377 (during a decent hour, Pacific Time), otherwise please emailKate@GlobalWorkplaceAnalytics.com).
Telecommuting Trend Data (updated March 13, 2020)
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Below are the latest available statistics on the work-at-home/telework population in the U.S. based on our analysisof the 2005-2018 American Community Survey (ACS, a U.S. Census Bureau product). New ACS numbers, for the prior year, are released each Fall, so this page will be updated Sept/Oct of 2020.
The American Community Survey derives its data on the work-at-home population from the single question: What was your primary means of transportation to work during the survey week? “Worked at home” is one of the choices. Therefore, all we know about this population is that they worked at home half-time or more during the previous week. Though often used interchangeably, ‘telework’ is defined as the substitution of technology for travel, while ‘telecommuting’ is more narrowly defined as the substitution of technology for commuter travel. Thus if someone takes work home after being at the office, it’s considered telework but not telecommuting. If someone works at home instead of driving to an office they are telecommuting but not necessarily teleworking. Both terms were coined by Jack Nilles in the 1970s. Important point: many people and organizations are moving away from both the term telework and telecommuting in favor of remote work, work-from-home, distributed work, mobile work, smart working (UK), and workshifting (Canada). More important point: If you’re confused by all the conflicting numbers you read about telework, join the club. We explain the problem and try to offer a clearer view here. Most important point: Unless noted, the numbers below do not include the self-employed. Summary of Telecommuting Trends How many employees work from home? • 5 million employees (3.6% of the U.S. employee workforce) currently work-at-home half-time or more [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2018 American Community Service (ACS) data] • Regular work-at-home has grown 173% since 2005, 11% faster than the rest of the workforce (which grew 15%) and nearly 47x faster than the self-employed population (which grew by 4%) [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2018 ACS data] • 43% of employees work remotely with some frequency [Gallup State of the American Workplace 2016] How many people could work-from-home? • 56% of employees have a job where at least some of what they do could be done remotely [Global Workplace Analytics] • 62% of employees say they could work remotely [Citrix 2019 poll] • Studies repeatedly show desks are vacant 50-60% of the time. How many people want to work from home? • 80% of employees want to work from home at least some of the time [State of Remote Work 2019, Owl Labs] • Only 12% of federal employees say they would not want to work from home at least some of the time [Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey 2018] • 35% of employees would change jobs for the opportunity to work remotely full time (47% of Millennials and 31% of boomers); 37% would do so to work remotely some of the time (50% of Millennials and 33% of Boomers) [State of the American Workforce, Gallup, 2016] • Flexibility is one of the highest-ranked benefits by Millennials, even higher than student loans or tuition reimbursement. It ranked high for Boomers too although the percentages were 15-20 points lower. [State of the American Workforce, Gallup, 2017] • More than a third of workers would take a pay cut of up to 5% in exchange for the option to work remotely at least some of the time; a quarter would take a 10% pay cut; 20% would take an even greater cut. [State of Remote Work 2019, Owl Labs] What are the demographics of people who work-from-home? • A typical telecommuter is college-educated, 45 years old or older, and earns an annual salary of $58,000 while working for a company with more than 100 employees. 75% of employees who work from home earn over $65,000 per year, putting them in the upper 80th percentile of all employees–home or office-based. [Global Workplace Analytics’ special analysis of 2016 ACS data] • The chart below shows the percentage of people who work-at-home by industry. [Global Workplace Analytics’ special analysis of 2016 ACS data] • Using home as a ‘reasonable accommodation’ per the Americans with Disabilities Act, 463,000 disabled employees regularly work from home (7.1% of the disabled). Who offers remote work? • Forty percent more U.S. employers offered flexible workplace options than did five years ago. But only 7% make it available to most or all of their employees. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of BLS data] • 69% of employers offer remote work on an ad hoc basis to at least some employees, 42% offer it part-time, 27% offer it full time [SHRM 2019 Employee Benefits Survey] • Larger companies are most likely to offer telecommuting options to most of their employees. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data] • New England and Mid-Atlantic region employers are the most likely to offer telecommuting options. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data] • Full-time employees are four times more likely to have work-at-home options than part-time workers. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data] • Non-union workers are twice as likely to have access to telecommuting, but union access is growing rapidly. [Global Workplace Analytics’ analysis of 2017 ACS data] How often do people work from home? While there is no government data that provides additional granularity on the frequency of telework, we offer the following: • 3.6% of the workforce works remotely half time or more [Global Workplace Analytics’ special analysis of 2018 ACS data]43% of the workforce works remotely at some frequency [State of the American Workforce, Gallup, 2016] • Two to three days a week seems to be the sweet spot that allows for a balance of concentrative work (at home) and collaborative work (at the office) [Global Workplace Analytics’ observation of clients and case studies, 2020] How do employers benefit from remote work? Based on conservative assumptions, we estimate a typical employer can save an average of $11,000 per half-time telecommuter per year. The primary savings are the result of increased productivity, lower real estate costs, reduced absenteeism and turnover, and better disaster preparedness. Employers can calculate their own potential savings on our free Telework Savings Calculator™ which a report to Congress by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget referred to as “comprehensive and based on solid research.” Click here for additional benefits of remote work for employers as well as the potential drawback. How do employees benefit from remote work? We estimate that employees save between $2,500 and $4,000 per year by working at home half the time. Those savings are primarily due to reduced costs for travel, parking, and food. They are net of additional energy costs and home food costs. In terms of time, a half-time telecommuter saves the equivalent of 11 workdays per year in time they would have otherwise spent commuting. Extreme commuters save more than three times that about. These estimates assume a 75% reduction in driving on telework days. Click here for additional benefits for employees who work at home. How does society and the environment benefit from remote work? Eliminating or reducing commuter travel is the easiest and most effective way for a company or individual to reduce their carbon footprint. Based on our estimates, if those who have a work-from-home compatible job and a desire to work remotely did so just half the time, the greenhouse gas reduction would be the equivalent to taking the entire New York State workforce off the road. Click here for additional benefits of remote work for the community and environment. READ MORE